There are also many synthetic sex steroids. Synthetic androgens are often referred to as anabolic steroids . Synthetic estrogens and progestins are used in methods of hormonal contraception . Ethinylestradiol is a semi-synthetic estrogen. Specific compounds that have partial agonist activity for steroid receptors , and therefore act in part like natural steroid hormones, are in use in medical conditions that require treatment with steroid in one cell type, but where systemic effects of the particular steroid in the entire organism are only desirable within certain limits. 
Based on computer EEG (CEEG) profiles, in high doses, antidepressant properties of mesterolone, a synthetic androgen, were predicted. In a double-blind placebo controlled study, the clinical effects of 300-450 mg daily mesterolone were investigated in 52 relatively young (age range 26-53 years, mean years) male depressed outpatients. During 6 weeks of mesterolone treatment, there was a significant improvement of depressive symptomatology. However, since an improvement was also established during the placebo treatment, no statistically appreciable difference in the therapeutic effects of mesterolone was established compared to placebo. Mesterolone treatment significantly decreased both plasma testosterone and protein bound testosterone levels. Patients with high testosterone levels prior to treatment seem to have had more benefit from mesterolone treatment than patients with low testosterone levels. The degree of improvement weakly correlated to the decrease of testosterone levels during mesterolone treatment.
The use of mesterolone (30-75 mg daily for 60 days) in the treatment of primary and secondary male sterility (oligospermia, asthenospermia, a bnormal sperm viscosity, limited sperm survival time) in 141 patients is reported. Improvement of at least 1 symptom was seen in 44 patients. In 19 cases, the spouse became pregnant. The lower dose was associated with a somewhat higher improvement rate. Tolerance of mesterolone was excellent; side effects were observed in 2 patients. It is concluded that mesterolone is a useful addition to the therapeutic arsenal for the treatment of male infertility.